Spatial and seasonal variation in reproductive indices of the clupeids Limnothrissa miodon and Stolothrissa tanganicae in the Congolese waters of northern Lake Tanganyika

Mulimbwa N'sibula, Leona J.M. Milec, Joost A.M. Raeymaekers, Jouko Sarvala, Pierre-Denis Plisnier, Béatrice Marwa, Jean-Claude Micha

Abstract


Knowledge on the reproductive biology of the endemic clupeids Limnothrissa miodon and Stolothrissa tanganicae, two main target species of the pelagic fisheries of Lake Tanganyika, is constrained by fragmented monitoring activities. Here, we investigate the nursing areas of L. miodon, the timing of reproductive activities of littoral and pelagic L. miodon, and the timing of reproductive activities of pelagic S. tanganicae in the Congolese waters of the northern end of Lake Tanganyika (Bujumbura sub-basin). Nursing areas were determined year-round (2009–2010) based on the presence of clupeid larvae at two sandy and two stony beaches. The gonadosomatic index (GSI) and the proportion of fish having ripe gonads were used to study variation in reproductive indices in space (littoral vs. pelagic zones) during one year (2013–2014), as well as in time (dry vs. rainy season) during three years (2013–2016). Larvae of L. miodon were more frequently encountered on sandy than on stony beaches. Mature L. miodon females were more abundant in the littoral than in the pelagic zone, while the proportion of mature males in both habitats was similar. Irregular, low amplitude peaks could be distinguished in the GSI and proportion of mature males and females, but averages only differed between the dry and the rainy season in males. In contrast, GSI and proportions of mature males and females in S. tanganicae were higher in the dry season than in the rainy season. The reproductive effort of males and females of S. tanganicae and littoral L. miodon, but not pelagic L. miodon, was strongly synchronized. Interestingly, reproductive investment was also synchronised between pelagic male L. miodon, and pelagic S. tanganicae. Our time series strongly supports the view that L. miodon reproduces year-round in the littoral zone, while reproduction in S. tanganicae is seasonal. For fisheries management, we recommend year-round protection of sandy beaches, which are the main breeding grounds for L. miodon.

Keywords


nursing areas; reproductive activity;, clupeids; Lake Tanganyika; fisheries management

Full Text:

PDF

References


ARO E. & MANNINI P. (1995). Résultats des études de la biologie des populations des poissons sur le lac Tanganyika pendant la période de Juillet 1993 - Juin 1994. FAO/FINNIDA Recherche pour l’aménagement des Pêches au Lac Tanganyika. GCP/RAF/271/FIN-TD/38 (Fr): 115 pp.

COCQUYT C., PLISNIER P.-D., MULIMBWA N.T. & NSHOMBO M.V. (2021). Unusual massive phytoplankton bloom in the oligotrophic Lake Tanganyika. Plant Ecology and Evolution 154: 351–361. https://doi.org/10.5091/plecevo.2021.1890

COHEN A.S. , BILLS R., COCQUYT C.Z. & CALJON A.G. (1993). Impact of sediment pollution on biodiversity in Lake Tanganyika. Conservation Biology 7: 667–677. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1739.1993.07030667.x

CORMAN J.R., MCINTYRE P.B., KUBOJA B., BEMBA W., FINK D., WHEELER C.W., GANS C., MICHEL E. & FLECKER A.S. (2010). Upwelling couples chemical and biological dynamics across the littoral and pelagic zones of Lake Tanganyika, East Africa. Limnology and Oceanography 55: 214–224. https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.2010.55.1.0214

COULTER G.W. (1961). Lake Tanganyika Research. Annual Report, Joint Fisheries Research Organisation, Zambia 10: 7–30.

COULTER G.W. (1970). Population changes within a group of fish species in Lake Tanganyika following their exploitation. Journal of Fish Biology 2: 329–353. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.1970.tb03292.x

COULTER G.W. (1991). Lake Tanganyika and its Life. Natural History Museum and Oxford University Press, London. 354 pp.

CHAPMAN D.W. & VAN WELL P. (1978). Growth and mortality of Stolothrissa tanganicae. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 107: 26–35. https://doi.org/fgpbqh

DE KEYZER E.L.R., DE CORTE Z., VAN STEENBERGE M., RAEYMAEKERS J.A.M., CALBOLI F.C.F., KMENTOVÁ N., MULIMBWA N., VIRGILIO M., VANGESTEL C., MULUNGULA P.M., VOLCKAERT F.A.M. & VANHOVE M.P.M. (2019). First genomic study on Lake Tanganyika sprat Stolothrissa tanganicae: a lack of population structure calls for integrated management of this important fisheries target species. BMC Evolutionary Biology 19: 6. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12862-018-1325-8

DE KEYZER E.L.R., MASILYA MULUNGULA P., ALUNGA LUFUNGULA G., AMISI MANALA C., ANDEMA MUNIALI A., BASHENGEZI CIBUHIRA P., BASHONGA BISHOBIBIRI A., BASHONGA RAFIKI A., HYANGYA LWIKITCHA B., HUGÉ J., HUYGHE C.E.T., ITULAMYA KITUNGANO C., JANSSENS DE BISTHOVEN L., KAKOGOZO BOMBI J., KAMAKUNE SABITI S., KIRIZA KATAGATA I., KWIBE ASSANI D., LUBUNGA DUNIA P., LUMAMI KAPEPULA V., LWACHA F., MAZAMBI LUTETE J., SHEMA MUHEMURA F., MILEC L.J.M., MULIMBWA N’SIBULA T., MUSHAGAULUSA MULEGA A., MUTEREZI BUKINGA F., MUZUMANI RISASI D., MWENYEMALI BANAMWEZI D., KAHINDO N’DJUNGU J., NABINTU BUGABANDA N., NTAKOBAJIRA KARANI J.-P., RAEYMAEKERS J.A.M., RIZIKI WALUMONA J., SAFARI RUKAHUSA R., VANHOVE M.P.M., VOLCKAERT F.A.M., WEMBO NDEO O. & VAN STEENBERGE M. (2020). Local perceptions on the state of fisheries and fisheries management at Uvira, Lake Tanganyika, DR Congo. Journal of Great Lakes Research 46: 1740–1753. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jglr.2020.09.003

DE KIMPE P. (1964). Contribution à l’étude hydrobiologique du Luapula-Moero. Annales du Musée royal d’Afrique centrale 8: 128–238.

ELLIS C.M.A. (1971). The size at maturity and breeding seasons of sardines in the southern Lake Tanganyika. African Journal of Tropical Hydrobiology and Fisheries 1: 59–66.

FOGARTY M.J., SISSENWINE M.P. & COHEN E.B. (1991). Recruitment variability and the dynamics of exploited marine populations. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 6: 241–246. https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-5347(91)90069-A

JANSEN V.A.A., NISBET R.M. & GURNEY W.S.C. (1990). Generation cycles in stage structured popula-tions. Bulletin of Mathematical Biology 52: 375–396.

JUNKER J., RICK J.A., MCINTYRE P.B., KIMIREI I., SWEKE E. A., MOSILLE J. B., WEHRLI B., DINKEL C., MWAIKO S., SEEHAUSEN O. & WAGNER C. E. (2020). Structural genomic variation leads to genetic differentiation in Lake Tanganyika’ s sardines. Molecular Ecology 29: 3277–3298. https://doi.org/10.1111/mec.15559

HENDERSON H.F. (1976). On the large size of Limnothrissa in the catches of the ring-net fishery in Tanzania. FAO Report No. FI / URT / 71/012/29: 5–9.

KAITALA V., RANTA E. & LINDSTRÖM J. (1996). External perturbations and cyclic dynamics in stable populations. Annales Zoologici Fennici 33: 275 – 282.

KMENTOVA N., KOBLMÜLLER S., VAN STEENBERGE M., RAEYMAEKERS J.A.M., ARTOIS T., DE KEYZER E.L.R., MILEC L., MUTEREZI BUKINGA F., MULIMBWA N., MULUNGULA P.M., NTAKIMAZI G., VOLCKAERT F.A.M., GELNAR M. & VANHOVE M.P.M. (2020). Weak population structure and recent demographic expansion of the monogenean parasite Kapentagyrus spp. infecting clupeid fishes of Lake Tanganyika, East Africa. International Journal for Parasitology 50: 471–486. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpara.2020.02.002

KOLDING J., VAN ZWIETEN P., MARTTIN F., FUNGE-SMITH S. & POULAIN F. (2019). Freshwater Small Pelagic Fish and Fisheries in Major African Lakes and Reservoirs in Relation to Food Security and Nutrition. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. 642. Rome, FAO. 124 pp.

LANGENBERG V., MWAPE L.W., TSCHIBANGU K., TUMBA J.-M., KOELMANS A.-A., ROIJACKERS R., SALONEN K., SARVALA J. & MÖLSÄ H. (2002). Comparison of thermal stratification, light attenuation and Chlorophyll-a dynamics between the ends of Lake Tanganyika. Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management 5: 255–265. https://doi.org/10.1080/14634980290031956

LAVOUÉ S., MIYA M., MUSIKASINTHORN P., CHEN W.J. & NISHIDA M. (2013). Mitogenomic Evidence for an Indo-West Pacific Origin of the Clupeoidei (Teleostei: Clupeiformes). PLoS One 8 (2): e56485. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056485

MANNINI P., ARO E. KATONDA I., KASSAKA B., MAMBONA C., MILINDI E., PAFFEN P. & VERBURG P. (1996). Pelagic Fish Stocks of Lake Tanganyika: Biology and Exploitation. FAO/FINNIDA/ Research for the Management of the Fisheries on Lake Tanganyika. GCP/ RAF/ 271/ FIN – TD/53 FAO ROME (En): 85 pp.

MATTHES H. (1967). Preliminary investigations into the biology of the Lake Tanganyika Clupeidae. Fisheries Research Bulletin of Zambia 4: 39–46.

MICHA J.-C. (1973). Etude des populations piscicoles de l’Oubangui et tentatives d’élection et d’adaptation de quelques espèces à l’étang de pisciculture. CTFT. Paris. 110 pp.

MICHA J.-C., BANGULU B-L.N., IBOFA R., MUMBA F., MUTAMBWE S., ZANGA N., WILLEM E., SVENSSON J.-E. & WILANDER A. (2018). Une ressource insoupçonnée mais déjà surexploitée, Nannothrissa stewarti, au lac Maï-Ndombe (RD Congo). Résultat imprévu du Programme national de Lutte contre le Paludisme (PNLP). ARSOM, Bulletin des Séances de l’Académie royal des Sciences Outre-Mer 64 (1): 61–91. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3980731

MÖLSÄ H., REYNOLDS J.E., COENEN E. & LINDQVIST O.V. (1999). Fisheries research towards resource management on Lake Tanganyika. Hydrobiologia 407: 1–24. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1003712708969

MÖLSÄ H., SARVALA J., BADENDE S., CHITAMWEBWA D., KANYARU R., MULIMBWA N. & MWAPE L. (2002). Ecosystem monitoring in the development of sustainable fisheries in Lake Tanganyika. Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management 5: 267–281. https://doi.org/10.1080/14634980290031965

MULIMBWA N. (2006). Assessment of the commercial artisanal fishing impact on three endemic pelagic fish stocks, Stolothrissa tanganicae, Limnothrissa miodon and Lates stappersi, in Bujumbura and Kigoma sub-basins of the Lake Tanganyika. Verhandlungen Internationale Vereinigung für theoretische und angewandte Limnologie 29: 1189–1193. https://doi.org/10.1080/03680770.2005.11902872

MULIMBWA N. & SHIRAKIHARA K. (1994). Growth, recruitment and reproduction of sardines (Stolothrissa tanganicae and Limnothrissa miodon) in northwestern Lake Tanganyika. Tropics 4: 57–67. https://doi.org/10.3759/tropics.4.57

MULIMBWA N., RAEYMAEKERS J.A.M. & SARVALA J. (2014a). Seasonal changes in the pelagic catch of two clupeid zooplanktivores in relation to the abundance of copepod zooplankton in the northern end of Lake Tanganyika. Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management 17: 25–33. https://doi.org/10.1080/14634988.2014.883896

MULIMBWA N., SARVALA J. & RAEYMAEKERS J.A.M. (2014b). Reproductive activities of two zooplanktivorous clupeid fish in relation to the seasonal abundance of copepod prey in the northern end of Lake Tanganyika. Belgian Journal of Zoology 144: 77–92. https://doi.org/10.26496/bjz.2014.68

MULIMBWA N., SARVALA J. & MICHA J.-C. (2019). The larval fishery on Limnothrissa miodon in the Congolese waters of Lake Tanganyika: impact on exploitable biomass and the value of the fishery. Fisheries Management and Ecology 26: 444–450. https://doi.org/10.1111/fme.12309

PEARCE M.J. (1985). A description and stock assessment of the pelagic fishery in the southeast arm of the Zambian waters of Lake Tanganyika. Report of the Department of Fisheries, Zambia: 1–74.

PLISNIER P.-D. (1997). Climate, Limnology, and Fisheries Changes of Lake Tanganyika. FAO/FINNIDA Research for the Management of Fisheries on Lake Tanganyika. GCP/RAF/271/FIN-TD/72 (En) 38p.

PLISNIER P.-D., J.-C MICHA & V. FRANK (1988). Pêche et biologie des principales espèces de poissons du lac Ihema (Rwanda). Presses universitaires de Namur, 212 pp.

PLISNIER P.-D., CHITAMWEBWA D., MWAPE L., TSHIBANGU K.K., LANGENBERG V. & COENEN E. (1999). Limnological annual cycle inferred from physical-chemical fluactuations at three stations of Lake Tanganyika. Hydrobiologia 407: 45–58. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1003762119873

PLISNIER P.-D., MGANA H., KIMIREI I., CHANDE A., MAKASA L., CHIMANGA J., ZULU F., COCQUYT C., HORION S., BERGAMINO N., NAITHANI J., DELEERSNIJDER E., ANDRÉ L., DESCY J.P. & CORNET Y. (2009). Limnological variability and pelagic fish abundance (Stolothrissa tanganicae and Lates stappersii) in Lake Tanganyika. Hydrobiologia 625: 117–134. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-009-9701-4

POLL M. (1974). Synopsis et distribution géographique des Clupeidae d’eau douce africaines, descriptions de trois espèces nouvelles. Bulletin de l’Académie royale de Belgique 60 (2): 141–161. https://doi.org/10.3406/barb.1974.60868

R CORE Team (2020). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. Available from https://www.R-project.org/ [accessed 24 January 2022].

ROEST F.C. (1977). Stolothrissa tanganicae, population dynamics, biomass evolution and life history in the Burundi waters of Lake Tanganyika. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation. CIFA Technical Paper 5: 42–63.

RONCO F., BÜSCHER H.H., INDERMAUR A. & SALZBURGER W. (2020). The taxonomic diversity of the cichlid fish fauna of ancient Lake Tanganyika, East Africa. Journal of Great Lakes Research 46: 1067–1078. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jglr.2019.05.009

SALZBURGER W., VAN BOCXLAER B. & COHEN A.S. (2014). Ecology and Evolution of the African Great Lakes and Their Faunas. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 45: 519–545. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-ecolsys-120213-091804

SARVALA J., LANGENBERG V.T., SALONEN K., CHITAMWEBWA D., COULTER G.W., HUTTULA T., KANYARU R., KOTILAINEN P., MAKASA L., MULIMBWA N. & MÖLSÄ H. (2006). Fish catches from Lake Tanganyika mainly reflect changes in fishery practices, not climate. Verhandlungen Internationale Vereinigung für theoretische und angewandte Limnologie 29: 1182–1188. https://doi.org/10.1080/03680770.2005.11902871

SNOEKS J. (2000). How well known is the ichthyodiversity of the large East African lakes? Advances in Ecological Research 31: 17–38. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2504(00)31005-4

SYMOENS J.J. (1955). Sur le maximum planctonique observé en fin de saison sèche dans le bassin nord du lac Tanganyika. Folia Scientiae Africae Central 1: 12 pp

TIERCELIN J.J. & MONDEGUER (1991). The geology of the Tanganyika trough. In: Coulter G.W. (ed.) Lake Tanganyika and its Life: 7–48. Oxford University Press, London, Oxford and New York.

TOWNSEND C.R. (1989). Population cycles in freshwater fish. Journal of Fish Biology 35 (Supplement A): 125–131. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.1989.tb03053.x

TSHIBANGU K.K. & KINOSHITA I. (1995). Early life histories of two clupeids Limnothrissa miodon and Stolothrissa tanganicae, from Lake Tanganyika. Japanese Journal of Ichthyology 42 (1): 81–87. https://doi.org/10.11369/jji1950.42.81

VAN DER KNAAP M., KATONDA K.I. & DE GRAAF G.J. (2014). Lake Tanganyika fisheries frame survey analysis: assessment of the options for management the fisheries of Lake Tanganyika. Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management 17: 4–13. https://doi.org/10.1080/14634988.2014.882733

VAN STEENBERGE M., VANHOVE M.P.M., MUZUMANI R.D., MULIMBWA N., MUTEREZI B.F., PARISELLE A., GILLARDIN C., VREVEN E., RAEYMAEKERS J.A.M., HUYSE T., VOLCKAERT F.A.M., NSHOMBO MUDERHWA V. & SNOEKS J. (2011). A recent inventory of the fishes of the north-western and central western coast of Lake Tanganyika (Democratic Republic Congo). Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria 41: 201–214. https://doi.org/10.3750/AIP2011.41.3.08

WHITEHEAD P.J.P. (1985). FAO Species Catalogue 7. Clupeoid fishes of the world (suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, shads, anchovies and wolf- herrings. Part 1 – Chirocentridae, Clupeidae and Pristigasteridae. FAO Fisheries Synopsis 125 (7/1): 1–303.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.26496/bjz.2022.96

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


The Royal Belgian Society of Zoology acknowledges the Universitarian Foundation of Belgium and the National Fund of Scientific Research for their financial support in publishing the Belgian Journal of Zoology.