Pathogenic fungus in feral populations of the invasive North American bullfrog in Argentina

Romina Ghirardi, Javier A. López, Eduardo A. Sanabria, Lorena B. Quiroga, Michael G. Levy


This is a Short Note without an abstract.


bullfrogs; invasion; emerging infectious diseases

Full Text:



IUCN (2016). International Union for Conservation Nature red list. Available from [accessed 26 June 2017].

Letcher P.M., Powell M.J., Churchill P.F. & Chambers J.G. (2006). Ultrastructural and molecular phylogenetic delineation of a new order, the Rhizophydiales (Chytridiomycota). Mycological Research 110: 898–915.

Skerratt L.F., Berger L., Speare R., Cashins S., McDonald K.R., Phillott A.D., Hines H.B. & Kenyon N. (2007). Spread of chytridiomycosis has caused the rapid global decline and extinction of frogs. EcoHealth 4: 125–134.

Kilpatrick A.M., Briggs C.J. & Daszak P. (2010). The ecology and impact of chytridiomycosis: an emerging disease of amphibians. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 25: 109–118.

Eskew E.A. & Todd B.D. (2013). Parallels in amphibian and bat declines from pathogenic fungi. Emerging Infectious Diseases 19: 379–385.

Fisher M.C. & Garner T.W.J. (2007). The relationship between the introduction of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, the international trade in amphibians and introduced amphibian species. Fungal Biology Reviews 21: 2–9.

Pistoni J. & Toledo L.F. (2010). Amphibian illegal trade in Brazil: what do we know? South American Journal of Herpetology 5: 51–56.

Schloegel L.M., Toledo L.F., Longcore J.E., Greenspan S.E., Vieira C.A., Lee M., Zhao S., Wangen C., Ferreira C.M., Hipolito M., Davies A.J., Cuomo C.A., Daszak P. & James T.Y. (2012). Novel, panzootic and hybrid genotypes of amphibian chytridiomycosis associated with the bullfrog trade. Molecular Ecology 21: 5162–5177.

Kolby J.E., Smith K.M., Berger L., Karesh W.B., Preston A., Pessier A.P. & Skerratt L.F. (2014). First evidence of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) and ranavirus in Hong Kong amphibian trade. PLoS ONE 9 (3): e90750.

Laufer G., Canavero A., Nuñez D. & Maneyro R. (2008). Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) invasion in Uruguay. Biological Invasions 10: 1183–1189.

Descamps S. & De Vocht A. (2016) Movements and habitat use of the invasive species Lithobates catesbeianus in the valley of the Grote Nete (Belgium). Belgian Journal of Zoology 146 (2): 90–100.

Huss M., Huntley L., Vredenburg V., Johns J. & Green S. (2014). Prevalence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in 120 archived specimens of Lithobates catesbeianus (American Bullfrog) collected in California, 1924–2007. EcoHealth 10 (4): 339–343.

Daszak P., Strieby A., Cunningham A.A., Longcore J.E., Brown C.C. & Porter D. (2004). Experimental evidence that the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) is a potential carrier of chytridiomycosis, an emerging fungal disease of amphibians. Herpetological Journal 14: 201–207.

Mazzoni R., Cunningham A.A., Daszak P., Apolo A., Perdomo E. & Speranza G. (2003). Emerging pathogen of amphibians in frogs (Rana catesbeiana) farmed for international trade. Emerging Infectious Diseases 9: 995–998.

Luchini L. (1995). Situación de la ranicultura en la República Argentina. Technofrog 95: 3–14.

Nori J., Urbina-Cardona J.N., Loyola R.D., Lescano J.N. & Leynaud G.C. (2011). Climate change and American bullfrog invasion: What could we expect in South America. Plos One 6 (10): e25718

Barrasso D.A., Cajade R., Nenda S.J., Baloriani G. & Herrera R. (2009). Introduction of the American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus (Anura: Ranidae) in natural and modified environments: an increasing conservation problem in Argentina. South American Journal of Herpetology 4: 69–75.

Ghirardi R., López J.A., Scarabotti P.A., Steciow M.M. & Perotti M.G. (2011). First record of the chytrid fungus in Lithobates catesbeianus from Argentina: exotic species and conservation. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 82: 1337–1339.

Vaira M., Akmentins M.S., Attademo A.M., Baldo D., Barrasso D., Barrionuevo J.S., Basso N., Blotto B., Cairo S., Cajade R., Céspedez J., Corbalán V., Chilote P., Duré M., Falcione C., Ferraro D.P., Gutierrez F.R., Junges P., Lajmanovich R.C., Lescano J.N., Marangoni F., Martinazzo L., Marti L., Moreno L., Natale G.S., Pérez-Iglesias J., Peltzer P.M., Quiroga L.B., Rosset S., Sanabria E.A., Sánchez P., Schaefer E., Úbeda C. & Zaracho V. (2012). Categorización del estado de conservación de los anfibios de la República Argentina. Cuadernos de Herpetología 26 (Supl.1): 131–159. Available from [accessed 26 June 2017].

Cabrera A.L. (1976). Regiones fitogeográficas argentinas. ACME, Buenos Aires.

Hyatt A.D., Boyle D.G., Olsen V., Boyle D.B., Berger L., Obendorf D., Dalton A., Kriger K.M., Hero J.M., Hines H., Phillott A.D., Campbell R., Marantelli G., Gleason F.H. & Colling A. (2007). Diagnostic assays and sampling protocols for the detection of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 73: 175–192.

Livo L.J. (2004). Methods for obtaining Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) samples for PCR testing. Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado.

Boyle D.G., Boyle V., Olsen J.A., Morgan J.A. & Hyatt A.D. (2004). Rapid quantitative detection of chytriodiomycosis (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) in amphibian samples using real-time PCR assay. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 60: 133–139.

Akmentis M.S. & Cardozo D.E. (2010). American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus (Shaw, 1802) invasion in Argentina. Biological Invasions 12: 735–737.

Both C., Lingnau R., Santos-Jr. A., Madalozzo B., Pedrosa Lima L. & Grant T. (2011). Widespread Occurrence of the American Bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus (Shaw, 1802) (Anura: Ranidae), in Brazil. South American Journal of Herpetology 6 (2): 127–134.

Eskew E.A., Worth S.J., Foley J.E. & Todd B.D. (2015). American bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) resist infection by multiple isolates of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, including one implicated in wild mass mortality. EcoHealth 12: 513–518.

Herrera R.A., Steciow M.M. & Natale G.S. (2005). Chytrid fungus parasitizing the wild amphibian Leptodactylus ocellatus (Anura: Leptodactylidae) in Argentina. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 64: 247–252.

Murray K.A., Retallick R.W.R., Puschendorf R., Skerrat L.F., Rosauer D., McCallum H.I., Berger L., Speare R. & Van Der Walt J. (2011). Assessing spatial patterns of disease risk to biodiversity: implications for the management of the amphibian pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Journal of Applied Ecology 48 (1): 163–173.

Picco A.M. & Collins J.P. (2008). Amphibian commerce as a likely source of pathogen pollution. Conservation Biology 22: 1582–1589.



  • There are currently no refbacks.